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Development of the lesson “Sum of angles of a triangle” in geometry in 7th grade

Development of the lesson “Sum of angles of a triangle” in geometry in 7th grade

Lexical meaning of the word. Explanatory Dictionary “on the Ukrainian language in the 2nd grade

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Author: Puchko Lyubov Yaroslavivna Position: primary school teacher.

The material is posted as part of the Forum of pedagogical ideas “LESSON”

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▶ Development of the lesson “Country of Knowledge” in the 1st grade▶ Development of the lesson “Addition and subtraction of multi-digit numbers” in mathematics in the 4th grade▶ Development of the lesson “Addition and subtraction of two-digit numbers” in mathematics in the 2nd grade▶ Development of the lesson “Application of the general rule of adding two-digit numbers to cases of calculations of the form 50 + 30; 54 + 3” in mathematics in the 1st grade

11/30/2014

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Lesson plan-summary of generalization and systematization of knowledge on the declared topic, the purpose of which is to check the quality of knowledge and skills of students on the topic; to be interested in mathematics, establishing connections between it and Ukrainian folklore; develop logical thinking

Development of the lesson “Polynomials. Formulas of abbreviated multiplication” in algebra in 7th grade

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Author: Chernyakova Nadezhda Alexandrovna Position: teacher of mathematics.

The material is posted as part of the Forum of pedagogical ideas “LESSON”

It is strictly forbidden to use this material on other Internet portals and in the media, as well as to distribute, translate, copy in any way without the written permission of the educational portal Osvita.ua.

Related links:

▶ Development of the lesson “Coordinate plane. Schedule. Solving Exercises” in Algebra in 7th grade▶ Lesson development “What are common fractions?” in mathematics in the 5th grade▶ Development of the lesson “Quadrilaterals: parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square” in geometry in the 8th grade▶ Development of a lesson “Sum of angles of a triangle” in geometry in 7th grade

11/30/2014

Rhetoric and eloquence as types of oratory. Abstract

Rhetoric is a theory of oratory, science and at the same time the art of persuasive communication, which is the foundation of the professionalism of many humanities: politics, teachers, journalists, lawyers, managers

The training course of rhetoric consists of the following parts:

history of rhetoric (explores the place of rhetoric among other sciences, the main types and genres of oratory, stages of origin and development of rhetoric in human history – Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, the formation of Slavic oratory, modern rhetorical schools); theoretical rhetoric (the subject of its study are the laws of rhetoric: conceptual, the law of audience modeling, strategic, tactical, speech, the law of direct communication, system-analytical law); practical rhetoric (considers the subject and content of oral public speech, text of speech, image of the speaker, logical culture of the speaker, speech culture of the speaker, composition and style of speech, psychology of the audience, interaction of the speaker and the audience, communication with the audience as a creative process, polemical art of the speaker, etc.).

The art of the rhetor (speaker) is his mastery of the spoken word as a means of influencing the audience. It is based on a culture of thinking, deep and diverse education, learning from the best speakers of the past and speakers of the present, impeccable knowledge of the language and perfect command of speech, as well as mastering the culture of communication. The speaker must be endowed with intelligence, erudition, gift of speech, a certain level of skill, be communicative. Today, when society lives in conditions of devaluation of the word, the personal decency of the speaker, his uncompromisingness, sincerity, ability to defend his own views, the ability to understand the problems of people to whom he addresses are especially important.

Rhetoric, like philosophy and logic, belongs to the classical sciences, which since ancient times have been fundamental general disciplines. The art of rhetoric was known in Ancient Egypt, India and China, but the true birthplace of eloquence is considered to be Ancient Greece.

Rhetoric was an important part of the social life of ancient Greece. Like epic, drama, music, sculpture and architecture, it was considered art, creativity, it was called the “queen of all arts”.

In ancient times, rhetoric was divided into three areas: judicial rhetoric, political rhetoric, ceremonial rhetoric.

Ancient rhetoricians spoke at political meetings, forums and trials. The very first theory of rhetoric was created in the V century. BC is. in Syracuse. The most prominent rhetorician was Gorgias, who, having perfected the theory of oratory, introduced Athena to it. He managed to turn rhetoric into art, which was equal in strength to poetry.

The most famous rhetorician of ancient Greece was Demosthenes (384-322 BC). Contemporaries noted that the power of Demosthenes’ word can be compared only with a whirlwind or lightning.

We have received more than 60 speeches and letters from Demosthenes. The most famous are his political speeches against the Macedonian King Philip, who tried to deprive Athens of independence. Demosthenes, as the leader of the anti-Macedonian party, fought against the leader of the Macedonian party Aeschines. There was a lawsuit, which became a significant event for the then Greece. Aeschines and Demosthenes met in court. The speeches of both speakers are vivid examples of political speeches.

Whole generations of ancient orators studied at Demosthenes’ speeches. His speeches were modeled on one of the three most famous ancient Roman orators, Cicero (106-42 BC), who is considered the father of rhetoric. Cicero himself considered an ideal speaker to be a man of high culture who knew history, philosophy, literature, jurisprudence, could rule over the audience, being able to make people laugh and cry. Cicero considered education and a natural gift to be the key to the rhetorician’s success. In his treatises on oratory, Cicero noted that a rhetorician should be a patriot, a citizen who lives by the ideals of the state and the people.

Cicero delivered his first speech at the age of 25, and his last at the age of 63 (the year of his death). In total, he delivered more than 100 speeches, the texts of 57 of which have survived to our time.

Prominent rhetoricians were the ancient Greek philosophers Aristotle (384-322 BC) and Plato (428-348 BC).

The most famous orators of Kievan Rus were the first Metropolitan of Kiev Hilarion and Cyril Turovsky (both lived in the eleventh century).

The most famous sermon of Metropolitan Hilarion is the “Word of Law and Grace” which affirms the prominent role of Kievan Rus and defends its right to independence. The sermon is marked by exceptional depth of thought, imagery and emotion.

Kyrylo Turovsky is the author of many sublime majestic speeches.

The first Russian “Rhetoric” was created by an unknown author in 1620. The text has reached us in 36 lists. This work is a translation of the Latin rhetoric of the German scholar Melanchthon, but the text has been adapted to the needs of Russian education. It became the basis for the further development of East Slavic eloquence.

In the XVII-XVIII centuries. the course of rhetoric was taught at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, which, being a deeply national educational institution, focused on the most progressive achievements of the best European universities. Descriptions of 183 textbooks of rhetoric have survived to this day, 127 of which were compiled at the academy. The name of the academy was glorified by such outstanding rhetoricians as Hryhoriy Skovoroda, Feofan Prokopovych, Mykhailo Lomonosov.

The need to restore national rhetorical traditions is due to the fact that today there is an urgent need for individuals who can think independently, persuade, motivate and guide fellow citizens to move towards truth, goodness and beauty. Today we understand rhetoric as a science that can play the role of a synthesizer of many sciences aimed at the development of language personality: pedagogy, sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, social and personal psychology, language teaching methods, stylistics, speech culture, text linguistics and more …

Restoring the status of rhetoric as a science and an academic discipline should be a significant step towards the creation of a democratic, highly civilized society.

Eloquence is the art of controlling minds. The speeches of a worthy person are always aimed at the highest good. (Plato.) Nothing can do more harm than lying. That’s right, if those people whose state activity consists of speeches do not tell the truth, then is it possible to run the state reliably? (Demosthenes.) Philosophy recognizes charity, useful in terms of moral and civic, eloquence creates fame for them. (S. Shamfor).

The ultimate goal of eloquence is to convince people. (F. Chesterfield.) The duty of the speaker – to tell the truth. (Plato.) Eloquence belongs to those arts that do everything and achieve everything with words. (Plato.) Eloquence is a gift that allows us to master the mind and heart of the interlocutor, the ability to interpret or suggest to him everything we need. (J. Labruer.) Oratory enjoys all the benefits of poetry and all its rights. (J. Goethe.)

Plato, combining wisdom with eloquence, skillfully attracted the hearts of listeners not by cunning but by the power of truth. (K. Wieland.) Rhetoric – the queen of souls and the princess of the arts. (F. Prokopovich.)

An orator worthy of attention is one who uses words for thought and thought for truth and virtue. (F. Fenelon.)

To speak much and well is the gift of a sharp mind, to speak little and good is a property of the wise, to speak much and badly means a fool, to say little and badly is a sign of madness. (F. LaRochefoucault.)

There are areas in which mediocrity is intolerable: poetry, music, public speaking. (J. Labruer.)

02.07.2012

Western European rhetoric at the beginning. XX century Abstract

By the beginning of the XIX century. historians of science record the decline of rhetoric, which stretched for almost a century.

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