The average level of EPS is represented by a network of regional clearing houses (RRC).
Stabilization credit will be provided only if it is secured by collateral for highly liquid assets of a commercial bank or under the guarantee or surety of other financially stable banks.
In the future, the NBU plans to use such a method of refinancing commercial banks as rediscounting bills, provided that they will have at least three signatures and a maturity of up to six months.
Organization of interbank settlements
The Central Bank is responsible for the efficient and smooth operation of the country’s payment system, ensuring risk minimization in this system.
Based on the nature of payments made by the payment system, there are:
interbank settlement systems; interbank payment systems; client-bank systems; consumer payment systems, ie systems of mass payments of the population using cards.
Interbank settlement systems are designed to carry out payment transactions between banks, which are due to the execution of payments of bank customers or own obligations of one bank to another. Interbank settlement systems in different countries can differ significantly. There is no single payment model in the world, but there are general principles for building a payment system.
Depending on the nature of the relationship between the participants in the payment process, there are two main methods of settlement:
using bilateral correspondent accounts; using accounts in the central bank, which plays the role of intermediary in the settlements.
According to the completeness of interbank settlements, there are two settlement systems: the system of gross and the system of clearing settlements.
The system of gross settlements (gross, gross) provides for the settlement of each payment document (ie for each transaction) separately.
The system of clearing settlements (net, net) ensures the accumulation of a certain amount of payment messages, after which the calculation of the net net position of each of the participating banks is performed (netting is performed). That is, for payment documents relating to one participant, the difference between the amounts of funds received by this bank and the funds it pays is calculated, and this difference can be both debit and credit. These net positions are then reflected in the accounts of participating banks.
Depending on who owns the interbank settlement system, there are two systems:
the system that the central bank owns, which it maintains and in which it performs calculations; a system owned by private sector entities (banking associations or clearing houses) and in which the central bank is assigned the role of final settlement agent. Both systems are united by the fact that the final calculation is performed by the central bank. Depending on the mode of operation of the correspondent account, there are two systems of interbank settlements: a system of settlements with the provision of an overdraft by a bank that maintains a correspondent account; settlement system without the provision of an overdraft loan by the bank that maintains the correspondent account, ie payments are made within the limits of the balances on the correspondent account. According to the operational parameters of electronic interbank settlement systems, there are two settlement systems: the batch mode system, when payment documents are processed periodically and in groups (payment document file packages); real-time system, when payments are credited to correspondent accounts as they are received.
According to the regulations of the National Bank, interbank settlements on the territory of Ukraine can be carried out:
through the system of electronic payments (EPS) of the National Bank of Ukraine; intrabank payment system; direct correspondent relations between banks (with the permission of the regional office of the NBU at the place of opening a correspondent account).
Since 1994, the main form of interbank settlements in Ukraine is the system of electronic payments through the network of clearing houses of the NBU. The system provides:
acceleration of settlements between banks; increasing the level of reliability of calculations; strengthening the control function of the NBU over the state of correspondent accounts of commercial banks; rational use of temporarily free resources of banks, etc.
EPS is built as a tree-network structure. At the lower level of EPS there are banks-participants of electronic settlements. The average level of EPS is represented by a network of regional clearing houses (RRC). RRP is a subdivision of the regional office of the National Bank, which serves the banks participating in the EPS of the region. At the upper level of the EPS is the Central Clearing House (CRC), which organizes the functioning of the EPS as a whole and manages the work of regional clearing houses.
To participate in the EPS, a commercial bank establishes correspondent relations with the regional office of the NBU, ie enters into an agreement on opening a correspondent account. Correspondent accounts are kept in electronic form in the regional office of the NBU. Simultaneously with the opening of a correspondent account for a commercial bank-participant of EPS, a technical correspondent account is opened in the RRP, through which interbank settlements are carried out directly.
EPS offers various ways of interaction of the main bank with its branches when performing interbank settlements. These methods are called "models of consolidated correspondent account maintenance in EPS" (schemes 3 – 9). When developing the models, it was taken into account that banks should manage their branches:
nationwide; as detailed as possible; by means of EPS; by two-tier structure.
The main characteristics of interbank settlements based on EPS
EPS is a centralized system of interbank settlements of the "gross" type owned by the NBU.
EPS operates without the National Bank providing an overdraft loan, ie payments are made within the balances on the correspondent accounts of commercial banks.
EPS provides settlements between banking institutions in the national currency of Ukraine and in the most commonly used foreign currencies.
EPS is based on completely paperless technology. The main mode of operation is the exchange of electronic payment documents and official messages using the NBU e-mail.
The initiative to conduct transactions in EPS belongs to the bank, which debits its own account. Based on this, the main type of payment documents used in the calculations are credit documents, ie payment orders. Payment transactions in EPS are irrevocable. EPS is based on a packet method of information transmission. Services of the system of electronic interbank settlements are paid. The main quantitative indicators of EPS as of mid-1997:
load EPS – 250 – 350 thousand payment documents during the day; number of subscriber banks – approximately 2450; term of passing payment documents from the payer to the recipient – from 10 minutes to 2 hours; – payment amounts are unlimited. The dollar equivalent of the amount of payments from $ 0.1 to $ 100 million, funds circulate in the system from 3 to 7 times a day.
The main trends https://123helpme.me/write-my-lab-report/ inherent in the current system of interbank settlements:
concentration of funds on the consolidated correspondent accounts of the main banks (legal entities), conducting a stricter policy of the main bank regarding its branches in the field of interbank settlements; centralization of processing of payment documents in the NRU CRP and settlement centers of large commercial banks, gradual increase in the number and volume of payment transactions.
In the future, the introduction of a system of urgent transfers in large sums in real time is forecast.
Commercial banks: identifying competitors and relationships with them. Abstract
To assess the strengths and weaknesses of competitors, it is necessary to collect systematic information on each significant existing or potential competitor. Moreover, the most important competitors need to be continuously monitored. For organizations that do not pose a particular threat, a periodic annual analysis of their activities will be acceptable
When analyzing competitors, you need to identify those major competitors that have or are likely to have a significant impact on the implementation of your own strategy. This usually means separating from a wide group of organizations surrounding the bank those that are direct competitors. This is typically the case for the banking industry, where the main competitive threats stem from non-bank financial and industrial corporations.
There are the following main groups of competitors:
there are direct competitors. These include the main banking competitors or those with high growth rates, especially if they successfully implement the planned strategies. It is noteworthy that a number of competitors abroad compete with your bank not in the geographic market, but in specific product markets. Different competitors must be analyzed with different levels of depth. Those that affect or may affect the core business need to be more closely investigated. Care must be taken not to lose sight of important competitors that have not historically been important. competitors in the face of new banks. These include mainly foreign banks that are expanding their geographical area. potential "newcomers" in the market. These are new non-banking competitors. They are often no less of a threat than direct competitors. Non-banking competitors include various institutions that have a stable customer base, which is supported by expanding and improving the distribution of services and means of using low-cost technologies.
Such non-banking institutions include four main types of firms:
Firms with low barriers to entry, which allows them to properly establish their brand and overall technology. The word "barrier" in business is used to denote barriers to market entry for new competitors and attempts by firms operating in the market to exit it. Examples of such companies are Sears Roebuck, J. C. Penney, Mark Spencer or high-tech companies such as IBM and Geisco. Firms with good experience or with synergy benefits. Synergy is understood as cooperation, interaction between organizations that unite for joint functioning under a single principle.